An external staircase in a wooden house serves as a functional part of the entrance space scheme. It is an indispensable element in the event of a height difference in the territory. An external staircase can connect different levels of floors, and also be an important part of the house porch.
External stairs are very similar in proportion to internal stairs. The same building codes apply in the design process
The main difference between outdoor staircases is that it is constantly exposed to precipitation, temperature extremes, solar radiation, and seasonal mechanical fluctuations in the soil. These influences can cause the deformation of the staircase. Therefore, the structure is erected as an independent element, and it is not associated with the frame.
METHODS FOR ARRANGING OUTDOOR STAIRS
Experts recommend building an outdoor staircase under a canopy to protect the structure from external factors.
For the manufacture of a reliable, comfortable, durable wooden staircase, it is necessary to use a moisture-resistant antiseptic material. The service life of the structure depends on its quality and the reliability of the installation.
A lightweight outdoor wooden staircase is installed on a columnar foundation. This type of foundation is shallow; its cost is lower than the price of a deep foundation. Such a foundation is being built from monolithic concrete outdoor staircase
An important point!
In winter, a ladder installed on a shallow foundation can be climbed. To prevent the staircase from blocking the entrance, a threshold must be made in front of the door.
Be that as it may, the staircase installed on a columnar foundation will be skewed every season. In regions with heaving soils, a flight of stairs is installed at the bottom on a columnar foundation, and the upper platform is built on cantilever beams. In this case, the poles should protrude from the wall.
The March node, which is adjacent to the site, is attached like a hinge. In the upper part of the foundation, embedded elements are installed, thanks to which the lower part of the staircase is fastened more firmly. This solution provides for a fixed location of the landing.
In most cases, an external staircase is erected after the construction of a log house. Therefore, the columnar foundation must be installed after the soil in the sinuses of the structure's foundation completely sits down.
There is another way to equip a columnar foundation for an outdoor staircase. The base for the ladder structure is installed in the soil to the depth of freezing. The foundation, which is located below the freezing level of the earth, must be made of massive steel, cast iron, or asbestos-cement pipes. The pipes are immersed in pre-prepared wells.
An important point!
To avoid squeezing out the base during the frosty heaving of the soil, the sinuses between the walls of the well and the pipes must be filled with sand (medium or coarse-grained). The tubes can be additionally wrapped with a film, and their lower part can be fixed in concrete, which is pre-poured below the depth of freezing soil .installation of an outdoor staircase.
The simplest is a ladder on bowstrings with 4-5 steps. This structure is usually installed for temporary use. Risers, in this case, are not made. For the manufacture of a simple structure, two longboards and several short ones are used.
Longboards serve as bowstrings, and short boards are used for treads. To connect the footsteps with the bowstrings, wooden bars are fixed on the inside of the bowstring. Additionally, you can install stringers - they will increase the strength, reliability of the staircase.
The wooden elements of the stairs must be insulated from the concrete base with a layer of waterproofing material. The wooden structure's surface is covered with layers of waterproof paint to protect the wood from rotting and fungal diseases. It is also necessary to consider the fire hazard of a wooden staircase.
IMPORTANT NUANCES WHEN BUILDING AN OUTDOOR STAIRCASE
In the process of arranging an outdoor staircase, do not forget about the drainage of water from the steps. If the stair is not large, it is installed at a slight slope from the house.
Also, special trays are used to drain water. They are arranged near the side fences and along the junction of the risers to the tread. For water from entering the trays, the steps are built with an appropriate slope.
Formwork boards should not have holes or defects. They must withstand the pressure from the concrete that is poured into the formwork.
It would be best if you also remembered that frost-resistant materials must be used for facing the stairs. Their surface must be rough, grooved to avoid slipping.